NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Greek and Latin prefixes play an important role in nomenclature:
Organic compounds: Compounds containing the element carbon.
Special characteristics of many organic compounds are chains or rings of carbon atoms bonded together.
These provide the basis for naming, and the presence of many carbon-hydrogen bonds.
The valency of carbon in organic compounds is 4.
Hydrocarbons: Compounds containing only the elements C and H.
Straight chain hydrocarbons are named according to the number of carbon atoms.
Saturated compound: One having only single bonds
Example: ethane, C2H6
Saturated hydrocarbons are also known as alkanes.
Systematic nomenclature is largely based on the above series of saturated alkanes with the number of carbon atoms associated with the stems:
The ending -ane means no unsaturation (no double or triple bonds). Alkanes may be non-cyclic (acyclic) or cyclic (contain rings).
The general formula for an acyclic alkane is CnH2n+2 and
for one containing one ring CnH2n.
In cyclic alkanes the stem gives the number of carbon atoms in the ring.
Example: c-C6H12 is cyclohexane, where c- means cyclic
Unsaturated compound: A compound with one or more multiple (double or triple) bonds.
Example: ethene (ethylene), CH2=CH2 .
Alkene: A hydrocarbon containing a double bond
Example: C3H6, CH3-CH=CH2, propene.
Alkyne: A hydrocarbon containing a triple bond
Example: C4H6 or CH3CH2C≡CH, butyne.
The endings -ene and -yne are for the double or triple bond respectively.
The general formula CnH2n+2 loses two Hs for each ring or each double bond and four H's for each triple bond.
The position of the multiple bond is shown by a number in the name, numbering from the end of the chain to give the smallest number.
Alkyl group: In general, an alkane minus one hydrogen atom and represented by R.CH3- is methyl (sometimes shown as Me);
CH3CH2- is ethyl (sometimes shown as Et);
CH3CH2CH2- is propyl (sometimes shown as Pr);
CH3CH2CH2CH2- is butyl (sometimes shown as Bu).
In straight chain alkanes the non-terminal carbon atoms are bonded to two other carbon atoms. In a branched alkane one or more carbons are bonded to three or four other carbon atoms.
Primary carbon atom: A carbon atom bonded to only one other C atom.
Secondary carbon atom: One bonded to two other C atoms.
Tertiary carbon atom: One bonded to three other C atoms.
Quaternary carbon atom: One bonded to four other C atoms.
looking at primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary carbons
Branched hydrocarbons are named after the longest chain (saturated) or the longest chain containing the double or triple bond (unsaturated) with the branched group given by its alkyl name
Example: CH3C(CH3)2CH2CH3 is 2,2-dimethylbutane; .
Isomers: Compounds with the same molecular formula but with their atoms arranged differently
Example: hexane and 2,2-dimethylbutane, both C6H14.
Constitutional (structural) isomers: Isomers having their atoms joined together in a different sequence.
Some chemists restrict this term for isomers which have different functional groups
Example: hexene and cyclohexane.
They would classify isomers containing the same functional groups as positional isomers
Examples: 2-methylpentane, CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 and
Organic compounds are classified by the functional groups they contain.
Functional group: An atom or group of atoms which give the compound distinctive chemical properties.
Example: -Cl, -OH, >C=C<, -CO2H. Thus all organic compounds except saturated hydrocarbons have one or more functional groups. The functional group determines the class of compound. In nomenclature the functional group may be identified by a prefix, a suffix, or by the class of compound. (See below)
Common functional groups and classes of compounds are:
-F, fluoro-; -Cl, chloro-; -Br, bromo-; -I, iodo-; generally called haloalkanes (prefix) or alkyl halides (class of compound)
CH3CH2Cl is chloroethane or ethyl chloride.
CH3CHFCH2CH3 is 2-fluorobutane or secondary butyl fluoride..
-OH, hydroxy-, giving rise to alcohols. The -OH group can be named as the prefix hydroxy-, as the suffix -ol replacing the -e of the alkane or as an alcohol.
Examples: CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3 is butan-2-ol or secondary butyl alcohol;
(CH3)3COH is 2-methylpropan-2-ol or tertiary butyl alcohol.
-NH2, amino-, giving rise to amines. The -NH2 group can be named as the prefix amino-, with the suffix -amine replacing the -e of the alkane or as an amine.
Example: CH3CH2NH2 is aminoethane, ethanamine or ethylamine.
Amines can be considered as ammonia with hydrogens replaced by alkyl groups. If just one H is replaced the amine is a primary amine, as above. If two hydrogens are replaced the amine is a secondary amine
Example: CH3CH2NHCH3, N-methylethanamine
(the N shows the methyl substituent is bonded to nitrogen) or ethyl methyl amine.
If all three hydrogens are replaced the amine is a tertiary amine
Example: (CH3)3N is trimethylamine.
(Note that for alkyl halides and alcohols 1o, 2o or 3o refers to the carbon atom to which the halo or hydroxy group is attached.
For amines it refers to the number of alkyl groups on the nitrogen.
Thus (CH3)3COH is a tertiary alcohol,
but (CH3)3CNH2 is a primary amine.)
some primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols and amines
|| >C=O, carbonyl. If this is at the end of a chain the compound is an aldehyde, and named with the suffix al |
We are looking at the structural formula of propanal or
||If the CO group is not at the end of a chain the compound is a ketone, and named with the suffix -one|
pentan-3-one, (or diethyl ketone) is shown.
Propanone (dimethyl ketone) is commonly called acetone.
|| carboxyl, giving rise to carboxylic acids.
The suffix −oic and the word acid are used in naming.
CH3CH2CH2CO2H is called butanoic acid.
Methanoic acid, HCO2H, is commonly called formic acid,
Ethanoic acid, CH3CO2H, is commonly called acetic acid.
The group is also often written as −COOH instead of −CO2H.
The CH3CO− group is commonly called the acetyl group.
RCO− is an acyl group.
The product of the reaction of a carboxylic acid with a base is a carboxylic acid salt, an ionic compound. The name of the cation is given first followed by the acid with the suffix -oate replacing -oic.
Examples: CH3CH2CH2CO2¯Na+ is sodium butanoate;
CH3CO2¯NH4+ is ammonium ethanoate or ammonium acetate.
The general name for the anion is carboxylate.
When the OH of the carboxyl group is replaced by another group the compond is a carboxylic acid derivative. If the OH is replaced by OR of an alcohol the compound is called an ester. The R group is given first followed by the acid with the suffix -oate replacing -oic
Example: CH3CH2CO2CH2CH3 is ethyl propanoate.
When the OH group is replaced by NH2 the compound is a primary amide. The suffix -amide replaces -oic.
Example: CH3CONH2 is ethanamide, more commonly called acetamide.
If the OH has been replaced by an RNH the compound is a secondary amide, or by an RR'N group a tertiary amide, and the alkyl group of the amine named as such with the prefix N to show it is bonded to the nitrogen atom
Example: CH3CH2CONHCH3 is N-methylpropanamide.
If the OH has been replaced by a halo group the compound is an acyl halide, -oic becoming -oyl
Example: CH3CH2COCl is propanoyl chloride.
If the OH has been replaced by a carboxylate group, OCOR, the compound is an acid anhydride.
Example CH3COOCOCH3 is ethanoyl anhydride or acetic anhydride. An anhydride in general is a substance formed by removing the elements of water from the compound.
Example 2CH3CO2H CH3COOCOCH3 + H2O
Multifunctional compound: A compound with more than one functional group.
Nomenclature of multifunctional compounds: The longest chain containing the suffix is chosen, the priority for choosing the suffix being carboxylic acid, -CO2H, > carboxylic acid derivative, -COX > aldehyde, -CHO > ketone, -CO-, > alcohol, -OH > amine, -NH2. The second and other groups are labelled as substituents.
some examples of multifunctional compounds
For compounds with larger carbon skeletons a further condensation of structural may be used.
Benzene is C6H6 and is the parent of aromatic compounds. Each carbon in the benzene ring has one hydrogen attached. As a second resonance structure with the double bonds in the other three positions can be drawn, the resonance hybrid of benzene is often represented as a hexagon with a circle inside:
||represents propylcyclohexane. Each line represents two carbon atoms joined by a single bond, and hydrogens which are present are not shown. The number of Hs is such to satisfy the valency of carbon, 4.|
||is butylbenzene. |
Aromatic compound: An organic compound containing one or more benzene rings.
Phenyl group: Benzene minus one hydrogen, C6H5- (sometimes shown as Ph).
Example: C6H5CH2CH2CO2H is 3-phenylpropanoic acid.
Benzyl group: C6H5CH2-
Examples C6H5CH2Cl is benzyl chloride;
C6H5COOH is benzoic acid.
Many substituted benzenes have common names. PhOH is phenol, PhCH3 is toluene; PhNH2 is aniline; PhCH=CH2 is styrene.
Vinyl Group: Ethene minus a hydrogen, CH2=CH-.
Examples: CH2=CHCl is vinyl chloride, CH3COOCH=CH2 is vinyl acetate.
Vinyl compounds are the monomers of vinyl polymers.
Example: PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PVA, polyvinyl acetate.
Write condensed formulae, but showing all double and triple bonds, for the compounds:
1. Example: 2-chlorohex-3-ene
6. pentyl propanoate
7. 2-propyl-4-hydroxyhexanoic acid
The answers for 1 to 9
Give the systematic name of the following compounds
The answers for 10 to 18